In Fiore vs. Consolidated Freightways, 140 N.J.452 (1995), Section 31 of the Workers’ Compensation Act is discussed in detail. Mr. Fiore’s job was to pick up and deliver freight. Mr. Fiore claimed that drivers would often leave their trucks running while loading and unloading. He described a work environment that contained a lot of dust and fumes. Mr. Fiore was overweight, smoked two packs of cigarettes a day, and his father had died of a heart attack at age 69. On August 8, 1986, after Mr. Fiore had been working for two or three hours, he experienced an angina heart attack. The medical testimony was vague about the extent of carbon monoxide exposure because there was no carbon monoxide level testing done at the plant. Furthermore, Mr. Fiore’s own expert concluded that his cigarette smoking would have exposed him to carbon monoxide outside the workplace.